Cry CU 有關中大國際化討論

星期二, 5月 17, 2005

為什麼燈泡不亮 ——我看香港的「國際化」[全文]

世紀
D06 明報 龍應台
2005-05-16



世紀‧Intellectual
為什麼燈泡不亮 ——我看香港的「國際化」



香港人真的很有國際觀嗎?---有多少香港大學生了解京都議定書是個什麼來龍去脈?假定他聽過這個詞,他又是否知道為什麼俄羅斯簽,美國不簽,中國又簽了沒有?他是否說得出來「溫室效應」究竟影響了什麼?布殊侵略伊拉克這個行為,包含了幾個層次的意義,可以有幾種立場的觀點?他是否能以全球貧富差距問題進行一場辯論?聯合國的二○一五計劃---在校園裏辦各種活動的學生們,有幾成聽說過?幾成的人知道「沙哈拉沙漠以南」代表什麼?

挑出二○○五年三月十二日那一天台灣幾個比較認真的報紙,尋找國際新聞,發現每一個報紙不超過十條。其中兩三條是政治的即時性新聞,譬如歐美協議如何處理伊朗核武的威脅,剩下的,全是國際的鹹濕「社會新聞」:美國強暴犯當庭槍殺法官。麥可傑克森性侵兒童案繼續。性侵幼童德國神棍被捕。十三歲男童強暴女老師。紐約警察受僱作槍手殺人……

「雜碎」的國際報道

國際化程度明顯超過台灣的香港,應該很不一樣吧?我的發現讓我自己吃了一驚,幾份主要的香港報紙的國際報道竟然和台灣的幾乎一樣,當天還多出一條台灣沒有的:一夜歡情,某國某男子把「陽貨」卡在戒指中。

那麼究竟當天世界上發生了些什麼事呢?我只好上網瞧瞧。美國觀點的《紐約時報》有這些:

英國的「非洲調查報告」出爐,要求每一個先進國家將外援大幅增加到國家預算的百分之零點七。英、法、西班牙都已做到,美國卻落後很遠。利亞自黎巴嫩撤軍。玻利維亞總統梅薩得到國會支持,繼續執政,但是政治情勢極不穩定。

美國法院判決,美國政府應對匈牙利猶太人賠償二戰間所掠奪的財產……歐洲觀點的《法蘭克福匯報》有這些:歐盟準備限制中國紡織品進口,因為中國紡織品嚴重威脅歐洲經濟。

華人在柏林遊行,抗議中國政府的西藏政策。伊拉克的經濟重建碰到很複雜的問題。馬其頓大選被指控作票。法國哲學家談車臣獨立的坎坷以及俄羅斯的霸權……

政治新聞之外,還有財經的和文化方面的國際新聞,譬如聯合國經濟學家對全球化的看法,譬如巴西的小說家、伊朗的電影導演、古巴音樂的評介等等。

三月十二日的日本《讀賣新聞》網上版有二十條國際新聞;新加坡《聯合早報》網上有八條國際新聞,加上轉載十五篇與國際有關的報道。

對比之下,台灣和香港的中文媒體,不知誰影響了誰,還真像:國際新聞的量非常少,而在極少量的國際新聞中,有高比例的姦淫擄掠聳動「雜碎」,要不然就是浮面的瞬間發生的事件。事件之前的歷史脈絡和深層意義,事件之後的思潮形成和可能影響,事件與事件之間的抽絲剝繭等等,卻極為欠缺。

大學生知道什麼?

這樣的發現令我驚訝,因為,香港的國際化程度超過台北,是一個那麼明顯的事實。二○○四年台灣有一百零三萬人次的觀光客,香港的觀光客卻超過兩千一百萬人次,是台灣的二十倍。兩千一百萬人次中,一半來自中國大陸,但至少有一半來自世界各國。觀光客多的城市,不可能是一個太閉塞的城市。

台灣在政治上全面孤立,長年被排除在國際社會之外,相對之下香港與國際的接觸機會特別多,各形各色的國際會議此起彼落、經年不斷地在這裏發生。就以二○○五年十二月世貿組織將在香港開會來說,一個這樣的會議給香港人帶來什麼?因為要負責協調,從官員到最底層的小公務員,在與各國政府和代表不斷的來往溝通中,接觸了國際的議題,更學到國際應對的技巧。衝世貿會議,全世界反全球化的組織也動員要來香港抗議,由香港的民間團體負責統合。於是香港的民間團體從統合的運作中也將學到全球性的組織操作,而且在一瞬間就與全世界的反對組織接軌。至於普通市民,由於屆時新聞的炒作,那平常不關心的人對世貿議題都會得到多一點的認識,平常關心的人則更有機會取得第一手的信息。

每一次國際會議就像一顆石頭拋進池塘裏,漣漪一圈一圈擴散,整個池子受「波及」,而所謂「國際觀」,就是在這種不斷的漣漪「波及」中逐漸累積見識,逐漸開闊眼界,使「池子」裏的人,覺得自己是國際社會的一分子。

香港人和台灣人一個重大的差別在於,台灣人在多年的政治封鎖之下,很不幸地已經相當與國際社會脫節,而香港人,由於歷史所提供的多種族、多元共處環境,以及做為中西交匯點的地理條件,很自然地感覺與國際同一個脈動。南亞海嘯香港人人均捐獻居世界第一,一個很核心的解釋,我認為,是因為香港人覺得那些沙灘上各國各種的死難者,都是他的「街坊鄰居」,很貼近他的心;香港的島上向來就住無數各國各種的人。太多的「外國人」,其實就是正牌的香港人。

所以香港人其實是在一種國際環境中長大的。可是,為什麼平面媒體的國際新聞那樣貧乏?

我無法回答。只能說,與國際接觸多,可能不代表人們因而對國際就有深刻的認識,有獨立的觀點。

檢驗這個問題,或許也可以換一個方式來問:香港人真的很有國際觀嗎?譬如說,有多少香港大學生了解京都議定書是個什麼來龍去脈?假定他聽過這個詞,他又是否知道為什麼俄羅斯簽,美國不簽,中國又簽了沒有?他是否說得出來「溫室效應」究竟影響了什麼?布殊侵略伊拉克這個行為,包含了幾個層次的意義,可以有幾種立場的觀點?他是否能以全球貧富差距問題進行一場辯論?聯合國的二○一五計劃---在校園裏辦各種活動的學生們,有幾成聽說過?幾成的人知道「沙哈拉沙漠以南」代表什麼?

把中國放在全球視野中

兩千萬人次觀光客之中,一半是大陸訪客,香港人又從這一千萬人次的到訪中,增加了多少對中國的認識?討論中國的層次,除了喜歡內地人來買黃金和化妝品,除了憎惡內地人講話大聲不守規矩以外,多少人認真地、宏觀地去了解中國?從前用英國殖民者的眼光若即若離地看中國,九七之後轉而用「心繫家國」的角度看中國---有熱烈擁抱,也有冷淡排斥。我總是聽見香港人辯論:究竟應該把中國看成一個現代化進程緩慢的實體,與之保持一種距離,努力維持英國人留下來的現代化遺產,不被中國同化;還是把中國看做不容置疑的祖國,無條件地熱愛它、擁抱它、維護它所有的美好和惡劣。

我思索的是:除了這兩者之外,有沒有第三個可能的角度?夾在殖民情結和祖國情結中搖擺困惑的香港人,可不可能加一個宏觀的角度---把中國放在一個全球視野中去了解?

對於這麼龐大的一個國家在新世紀的

「崛起」,它歷史的悠遠曲折、種族的多元多樣、文化的強韌深厚、市場力量的舉足輕重、政治情勢的複雜微妙、對全球發展影響之巨大深遠,中國根本就是一個重大的全球現象,一個二十一世紀不可忽視的新的國際趨勢。香港人除了「矮矮」地仰頭遠望之外,或許也可以像任何其他「正常」的社會---法國、瑞典、馬來西亞、日本---一樣,認真而專注地去研究它、深刻而客觀地去了解它、理性而自主地去對待它。無條件地擁抱和預設不信任的排斥,其實不是唯一的角度。

但是,在熱烈的「烽煙」節目中,在酒酣耳熱的晚餐桌上,在商人聚會的餐廳酒樓裏,在大學和中學的講堂裏、在青少年的網路聊天室裏---溫室效應、伊拉克戰爭、聯合國扶貧計劃、北剛果的種族屠殺、俄羅斯的民主困境、富國與貧國的劇烈矛盾、中國的嚴重生態問題……這些議題在香港的生活環境裏,被提及、被討論、被辯論的機率又有多少呢?

(二之一)


世紀
D06 明報 龍應台
2005-05-17



世紀‧Intellectual
為什麼燈泡不亮──我看香港的「國際化」



聯合國2015目標 1990-2004進度對兒童影響1 . 貧窮人口減半*貧窮人口定義:每日淨收入低於一美元2 . 飢餓人口減半中國及印度的經濟大幅成長,導致世界平均收入提高,此目標已達成,但實際上沙哈拉沙漠以南,貧窮問題毫無改善個人平均所得提高不等於兒童福利提高。即使在印度和中國,兒童處境改善極為有限。沙哈拉沙漠以南國家,兒童處境更惡化。全世界所有兒童都能完成小學教育沙哈拉沙漠以南非洲國家無法達成全球有21億的兒童失學。以目前發展速度預測,到2015年將仍有7500萬兒童失學─70 %在沙哈拉沙漠以南地區。五歲以下兒童死亡率降低 2/398個國家無法做到。在沙哈拉沙漠以南、伊拉克、老撾、前蘇聯地區,兒童死亡率甚至增高。每天有3 萬兒童因小病而死亡。如果各國捐款不增加,兒童死亡率到2015年會減低 1/4,達不到 2/3的目標。婦女因生產而死亡比例降低 3/4目標只達成17 %。每年有50萬女性因懷孕或生產而死亡。母親死亡,嬰兒存活率亦受影響。

燈泡何以發光?因為燈泡後面有一套細密的電路網

絡;水龍頭何以出水?因為水龍頭後面有一套完整的

供水流程;樹幹何以成林?因為樹幹下面緊連一套

環環相扣的生態鏈結。語言何以啟蒙?因為語言後面有一整套幽微細緻、深奧繁複的思想系統。

確實不少有遠見的人,在大聲疾呼「國際化」的重要。但是不論是在台灣、大陸、新加坡或香港,「國際化」不經思索就被簡化為「學英語運動」;大學爭吵是否將英語變成規定教學語言,中學在憂慮母語教學是否耽擱了國際化的成效,同時英語運動鋪天蓋地席捲而來;漢語都還講不好、中文都還不會寫的幼兒,開始上密集而嚴苛的英語課。從上到下其中隱藏的邏輯是,英語好,就有國際觀,就能與國際接軌。

國際觀,與國際接軌,究竟是什麼意思呢?

全球公民意識

回到所謂國際新聞作為一個觀察點。許多西方的重要報紙都特別開闢「學生版」,引導十來歲的中學生關心公共事務。《紐約時報》的學生版比較淺顯,德文《時代周報》的學生版比較深入。差別的原因可能是,美國自居全球強勢,習慣自我中心思維,一般人對國際知識並沒有迫切的渴求,而德國經過兩次戰爭的慘重打擊,對民族主義戒慎恐懼,整個教育內涵極端強調國際參與的角度。漢堡的《時代周報》三月十二日的「學生版」新聞導讀的主題就是南亞海嘯。

學生先讀一篇聯合國經濟顧問薩賀斯的專訪。薩賀斯的主要觀點是,海嘯或地震種種自然災難事實上不僅只是自然災難,受害的輕重與人為因素有關。譬如同樣一場加勒比海颶風,同樣的威力,在貧國海地死傷上萬,在彼岸的邁阿密卻只有十來個人死亡。預警系統的完備、房舍的堅固、政府危機處理的效率、災後重建的財力和救濟網絡,在在都突顯全球的貧富差距,因此富國對窮國有協助的義務。薩賀斯批評聯合國做的不夠。

由南亞海嘯引出全球貧富問題,由貧富問題引出對聯合國計劃的檢驗。緊接小 讀者會看到這樣一個對照表(我只取其中 一部分):給學生的討論命題是:1 . 南亞海嘯和貧富差距有什麼關係?2 . 西方國家有責任嗎?為什麼有責任?或者貧國之間也缺乏統整?

3 . 除了政府以外,跨國企業的責任可能會是什麼?

4 . 比較聯合國的目標和薩賀斯的批評。你覺得他的批評合理嗎?為什麼你這樣認為?

透過一篇國際報道,中學生認識了亞洲,認識了貧國與富國之間的互動關連,認識了全球災難中自然和人為的因素,認識了聯合國的體制運作,認識了富國對地球村的道義責任。這樣一篇國際新聞,其實是在培養下一代的「全球公民意識」:我們在地球這一端吃的食物、穿的衣服、呼吸的空氣、製造的垃圾、發展或收斂、激進或保守、掠奪或放棄,每一個動作都和萬里以外另一端的人們有最緊密的關連,彼此的作為互相影響,而且最終要共同承擔後果。

有了這種超越國界的公民意識,人們對於自己國內的事務就有不同於以往的評斷標準。所謂國際化國際觀,所謂與國際接軌,指的應該是這種「全球公民意識」的建立:對於其他國家的歷史和現狀有一定的認識,對於全球化的運作和後果有能力判斷,對於人類社區的未來有所承擔。

有足夠的知識、能力、承擔,去和全球社區對話、合作、做出貢獻,叫做國際化。《時代周刊》這整套對年輕人「國際觀」的培養,是以德文進行的。老師們在課堂裏和學生就國際種種議題的討論,也是以德語進行的。他們可能也會試用英文來對話,但是毋庸置疑的是:用結結巴巴、半生不熟的英語,所能夠達到的思想深度與理解強度,和用自己最嫻熟的靈魂的語言---母語,是不能比的。

將燈泡黏到牆上

有沒有國際觀,能不能與國際接軌,不在於英語說得流利不流利,而在於有沒有深刻健全的「全球公民意識」;所以接下來的問題就是:學英語,就有了國際化,有了全球視野嗎?

一個來自沒水沒電的山溝溝裏的人第一次進城,很驚訝看見水龍頭一扭,就有水流了出來。很驚訝看見牆上的燈泡,一按就有光。於是他設法取得了一節水龍頭和一個電燈泡。回到家裏,將燈泡黏到牆上,將龍頭綁在棍上。結果燈不亮,水也不來。一個北方荒地的人走過南方沃土,看見一片綠豐美的樹林。他把樹全砍下,把樹幹像棍子一樣一根一根栽進他的荒地裏。等了一年,沒有樹林,只有棍子。

燈泡何以發光?因為燈泡後面有一套細密的電路網絡;水龍頭何以出水?因為水龍頭後面有一套完整的供水流程;樹幹何以成林?因為樹幹下面緊連一套環環相扣的生態鏈結。語言何以啟蒙?因為語言後面有一整套幽微細緻、深奧繁複的思想系統。我們知道沒有後面那個無形的網絡鏈結,燈泡不發光、龍頭不出水、樹幹不抽芽,但是請問,為什麼我們認為英語會帶來全球視野和國際觀?

英語,當然非常重要,因為對於非英語人而言它是一個簡便的萬用插頭,放在旅行箱裏,到任何一個城市都可以拿出來,插上電。但是,我們不能因此以為電的來源就是這萬用插頭。事實上,插頭不能供電,英語也給不了思想和創造力。

英語會變成一個強勢語言,是因為在英語的世界裏出現了累積了強大的創造力:用英語思考的人寫出了「大憲章」,發明了蒸汽機和電燈,發動了成功的革命,船堅炮利無所不克,萬商出動縱橫海上,訂下了民主規範,領先了科技的發展,又在思想藝術的領域裏出類拔萃。是深邃的思想和創造力造就了語言的強勢,不是語言帶來了深邃的思想和創造力。如果英語人當初被迫要用俄語或中文來進行思考和表達,而對本身母語英文的掌握反而是二流的,是詞不達意的,是粗糙而無法進入幽深細微之處的,我不相信英語文化會如此燦爛有光。

從崇山峻嶺中一縷溪流,千曲百折匯集成大水,轉化成能源,再經過無數精密的設計,最後我們客廳裏的燈泡亮了。可是光的來源是什麼?不是燈泡,不是插頭,是那起自崇山深處的整套過程。我們要培養國際觀和接軌國際的能力,必須從那大水的起點、民族創造力的源頭去尋找,也就是在自己的文字語言的深水水庫中先學會深潛呼吸和悠游自如,絕不是去買個燈泡,拿回來黏在牆上而已。

(二之二)

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